1361 - 1365


1361   Plague reappears in England and France.
1361   A truce is signed between Pedro I (the Cruel) of Castile and Pedro IV (the Ceremonious) of Aragon. Enrique de Trastamara, Pedro I's illegitimate brother, is expelled from Aragon, and crosses into Languedoc with his band of men.
1361   Blanche de Bourbon, wife of King Pedro I (the Cruel) of Castile and sister-in-law to King Charles V of France, dies in Medina Sidonia, under suspicious circumstances, (allegedly, though this is according to later propaganda on the part of Enrique de Trastamara and his French allies, at the hands of Pedro I's Jewish advisors, and at the instigation of his Jewish concubine). This marks a low point in Franco-Castillian relations, as Pedro has continually insulted Blanche, by living openly with his mistress, and keeping her virtually a prisoner at Medina Sedonia, and also quarreling with the French government over her unpaid dowry.
1361 November King Jean II dismisses Charles of Navarre's claims to the duchy of Burgundy, and annexes the duchy, provoking Charles once again to make war.
1361 January Petrarch visits King Jean II on an embassy from Galeazzo Visconti. He writes a report of the shocking and dismal condition of France.
1361 21 September Phillipe de Rouviers, Duc de Bourgogne, dies without an heir.

1362   King Jean II attempts to deal with the brigand companies. He hires the Archpriest Arnaut de Cervole and dispatches him with a small royal army led by the Comte de Tancarville and the Comte de la Marche.
1362   King Pedro I of Castile signs a alliance with King Edward III of England.
1362 8 February Edward III empowers two emissaries to negotiate a marriage between Margaret of Flanders, the 12 year old widow of Phillipe de Rouviers, Duc de Bourgogne, and his son Edmund Langley, earl of Cambridge.
1362 6 April Against the advice of de Cervole de Tancarville and de la Marche storm the height at Brignas, near Lyon in Burgundy. They are thoroughly defeated by the brigands, and three royal kinsmen from the Bourbon branch of the family are taken prisoner, along with many other nobles. The companies continue to pillage the countryside unchecked.
1362   Jean II goes to Avignon, to discuss a crusade.
1362 June The truce between Aragon and Castile is broken. Enrique de Trastamara gathers mercenary Companies in the comté of Foix, and waits for money from the French government before crossing into Aragon.
1362 22 June Edward III formally emancipates Jean de Montfort and gives him responsibility for the Duchy of Brittany. Jean de Montfort returns to Brittany
1362 July Jean II returns to Paris to find that the Dauphin and the Council have disallowed parts of the treaty on the grounds that it gave away too much, and that the Duc d'Anjou has broken his parole and fled. Coupled with the arrears in payment of the ransom, Jean feels his honor in disrepute, and concludes, bafflingly, that he must return to captivity in England.
1362 August The Companies assembled in Foix, as yet unpaid by the French government, begin to disperse and seek employment elsewhere.
1362 12 September Pope Innocent VI dies.
1362 23 September Negotiations between the de Montfort and de Penthièvre parties attempting to end the civil war in Brittany break down, having only achieved an extension of the truce.
1362 28 September Guillaume de Grimoard is elected Pope and enthroned as Urban V
1362 5 December Battle of Launac. The ancient feud between the houses of Foix and Armagnac comes to blows again, both armies swelled by mercenaries dispersing from Enrique de Trastamara's encampment. Gaston, Comte de Foix defeats his old rival Jean d'Armagnac, and becomes one of the richest and most powerful magnates in the south of France.

1363   Bertrand du Guesclin is appointed Captain-General of Normandy by King Jean II.
1363 27 June Jean le Bon appoints Philippe le Hardi, duc de Touraine lieutenant-general in the Duchy of Burgundy.
1363 July Truce of Evran: The de Montfort and de Penthièvre parties agree to another truce, and to appear before the Prince of Wales at Poitiers. The proposed settlement is that the Duchy of Brittany be split, and both contenders allowed to use the title of Duke.
1363 September Embassies of the de Montfort and de Penthièvre parties meet in Poitiers and arrange for a meeting between Jean IV de Montfort and Charles de Blois.
1363 6 September Jean le Bon secretly invests Philippe le Hardi, duc de Touraine and his heirs with the Duchy of Burgundy, along with all royal rights except fealty and homage, and is made without the usual condition that the fief should escheat to the crown in the lack of male heirs, and creates him First Peer of the Realm. Phillipe surrenders the Duchy of Touraine back to the Crown.
1363 Winter Bertrand du Gusclin marries Tiphane de Dinan, daughter of Jeanne de Dinan, Viscomptesse de La Bellière.

1364 January Jean II arrives in London.
1364 February Jean de Montfort and Charles de Blois meet at Poitiers. de Montfort is pressing for the ratification of the plan proposed at Evran, the splitting of the Duchy, but de Blois refuses to speak to him directly, and rejects the proposed settlement.
1364   Pope Urban V issues two Bulls of Excommunication, Cogit Nos and Miserabilis Nonullorum prohibiting dealings with the brigand companies in France, and offering a plenary indulgence to any who die fighting them. The companies don't seem to notice.
1364 March Jean II falls ill of an unknown malady.
1364 4 March The Scots Parliament refuses to recognize Edward III as King of Scotland.
1364 8 April Bertrand du Guesclin and the Marshal Boucicaut take Mantes by a ruse. Posing as grape harvesters, they surprise the defenders and capture the town.
1364 9 April King Jean II of France dies in England. Edward gives him a magnificent funeral and returns the body to France for burial at St. Denis.
1364 11 April Du Guesclin and Boucicaut invest Melun for siege. It falls rapidly, as does Rollebois, their next target.
1364 24 April Bertrand du Guesclin is granted the property of 24 of the burghers of Mantes, who were found to have supported Charles of Navarre.
1364 May Bertrand du Guesclin and his army search for the Captal de Buch in Normandy.
1364 14 (?) May Bertrand du Guesclin crosses the Seine at Pont-de-l'Arche, and holds a review to address his troops.
1364 15 May The Captal de Buch meets an English herald, le roi Faucon, who has just left the French army, and who tells the Captal of it's size and position.
1364 16 May The Captal de Buch takes his position on a ridge above Cocherel plain. Du Guesclin, on the fields below, dismounts his troops and waits.
1364 17 May Bertrand du Guesclin begins a withdrawal across the bridge on the Eure. This is possibly strategic, or possible real, as the French were low on supplies. Froissart says it was strategic. Either way, the Captal de Buch cannot control his troops sufficiently, and John Jowel, an english captain who had recently lost the castle of Rolleboise to du Guesclin, charges down the hill, leading the Anglo-Navarrese right wing to attack the Comte d'Auxerre's retreating battalion. The French turn to fight, and the Captal de Buch comes down off the hill. The battle remains uncertain until the Breton reserves, under Eustache de la Houssaye, turn the left flank of the Captal's army, thus winning battle of Cocherel, defeating the forces of Charles of Navarre and ending his threat to Paris. The Bastard of Mareuil is killed in the battle, and the foolhardy John Jowel dies of his wounds while in captivity. The Captal de Buch is taken captive, but released without ransom in the hopes of winning him over to the French side. He comes over, and is granted large revenues by King Charles. Du Guesclin trades the Captal and the Sire de Sacquainville for the Comté de Longueville, and thus does quite well out of the battle.
1364 20 May The Dauphin Charles is crowned King Charles V at Rhiems along with his Queen, Jeanne de Bourbon .
1364 2 June Following lengthy negotiations after the death of Jean le Bon and the coronation of Charles V, letters are published confirming Philippe the Bold's title as duke of Burgundy. His lieutenancy is extended to cover Lyons, Macon, Autun, Chalon and Langres. In return P agrees to surrender to Charles the document investing him with the County of Burgundy, and to permit him to levy the same taxes in Burgundy as in the rest of France. Neither of these concessions was actually significant however, as Philippe wouldn't have been able to inherit the county until the death of Margaret of Artois, and the taxes that Charles raised in Burgundy he turned over to Philippe.
1364 Late summer On orders from King Charles V, Philippe the Bold, duke of Burgundy lays siege to and captures a series of castles near Chartres. He was, according to a contemporary chronicler, often the first in the assault, brash and daring.
1364 End of August Again on orders from King Charles Philippe the Bold, duke of Burgundy, is sent to capture a castle near Rouen which is being held by the Navarrese.
1364 September Philippe the Bold, duke of Burgundy raises the siege of the Navarrese castle and moves to lay siege to La Charite-sur-Loire, which was being used by Navarrese/English brigand companies as a base for raiding the surrounding countryside.
1364 29 September Charles de Blois looses the battle of Auray, and his life, in Brittany. Bertrand du Guesclin, fighting for de Blois, is taken captive, and Olivier de Clisson, fighting for de Montfort and the English troops under Chandos, looses his eye.
1364 16 October An agreement is signed between Edward III and Louis de Male, Comte de Flanders arranging for the marriage of Edmund and Margaret. Edward agrees to turn Calais and Ponthieu over to Edmund, and to pay 175,000 lt. to Louis de Male. The only question left open is the issue of consanguinity between the two, which will require a papal dispensation.

1365   Charles V invites Thomas de Pisan, a Doctor of Astrology at the University of Bologna, to come to his court, and keeps him on at a salary of 100 francs a month.
1365   A joint tourney between the chivalry of Burgundy and Savoy is planned, but banned by pope Urban V.
1365 January Philippe the Bold, duke of Burgundy takes Nogent-sur-Seine, which has been being used by English brigand companies as a base in Champagne.
1365 16 January Pope Urban V, a staunch Frenchman, writes to Edward III refusing to grant a dispensation for the marriage of Edmund Langley and Margaret de Male.
1365 April Treaty of Guérande: Jean de Montfort, the English claimant, becomes Duc de Bretagne, though in accordance with the treaty of Bretigny it remains a fief of France. Jeanne de Penthièvre keeps the county of Penthièvre and the viscounty of Limoges. She agrees to render homage and recognize Jean IV as Duke. He agrees to pay her 10,000 lt. a year, and to try to negotiate the return of Jeanne's two sons, held hostage in England.
1365 May King Charles V pays Bertrand du Guesclin's ransom of 40,000 florins.
1365 12 June King Edward bans the playing of football in London, orders archery practice instead.
1365 Whitsunday Emperor Charles IV, interested in repelling the Turks from the eastern sections of the Empire, and Urban V, interested in repelling the brigand companies from France, call for a crusade in Hungary. This is to be led by Arnaut de Cervole, a brigand himself.
1365 Summer Those brigand companies that have decided to go begin moving to a rendezvous in Lorraine. Their reputation is such however that they are met with resistance by the citizens of Strasbourg, who refuse to let them cross the Rhine bridge. The Emperor is forced by his citizens to block them with his army, and the companies return to France after having been gone for only a month.
1365 27 July Engurrand de Coucy and Isabella Plantagenet are married at Windsor.
1365 August Bertrand du Guesclin contracts to lead the Companies out of France, in recognition of the debt he owes King Charles V. He pledges his county of Longueville as surety for the completion of the task.
1365 September The Companies, under the leadership of Bertrand du Guesclin,begin moving through the Rhône valley, towards what is being billed as a crusade against the Moors of Grenada. Pedro IV of Castile pledges ships for the enterprise, and conquests are to be carried out by Bertrand du Guesclin, who is to have the whole of the Kingdom of Granada, and Hugh Caveley, who is to have all the overseas conquests.
1365 30 October Pope Urban V, remaining firm in the face of Edward III's repeated requests for a dispensation, orders the archbishops of Rheims and Canterbury to forbid the marriage of Edmund Langley and Marguerite de Male.
1365 29 November Bertrand du Guesclin and the Companies pass through Montpellier.
1365   Bertrand du Guesclin and Marshal d'Audrehem, having charmingly extorted 200,000 francs and a blessing and absolution for all the 'crusaders' from the Pope, takes the brigand Companies and marches for Aragon.
1365 Christmastide Bertrand du Guesclin, Marshal d'Audrehem, Louis de Châlon (the Green Knight), Hugh Calveley and the principal captains of the 'crusade' arrive in Barcelona, and are lavishly entertained by King Pedro IV of Aragon.

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