At this period died in England the good duke of Lancaster1, whose Christian name was Henry. The king and all his barons, knights, and squires, were much afflicted, and wished it had not been so. He left two daughters, the lady Maude and the lady Blanche. The eldest was married to the earl of Hainault of the name of William, son of the lord Lewis of Bavaria and Margaret of Hainault. The youngest was married to the lord John, earl of Richmond, son of the king of England, who was afterwards duke of Lancaster, in right of his wife, and by the death of Henry duke of Lancaster.
In this season also died the young duke Philip of Burgundy2, earl of Burgundy, of Artois and of Boulogne, palatine of Brie and Champagne. He married the daughter of Louis earl of Flanders, by one of the daughters of John duke of Brabant, to whom fell the earldom of Burgundy, by the near relationship of Margaret his mother, who did homage and fealty for it to the king of France. The lord John of Boulogne, earl of Auvergne, came, by the same means, into possession of the earldom of Boulogne, and was homager to the king of France. King John also, from his proximity, took possession of and retained the duchy of Burgundy, and all rights over Champagne and Brie, which was highly displeasing to the king of Navarre; but he could not help himself; for he claimed Champagne and Brie, as being the nearest heir: his reasons were not listened to, for king John hated him much, and declared that he should never possess a foot of ground in Champagne nor in Brie3.
About this time, the king of France had formed a resolution to go to Avignon, and visit the pope and cardinals, and, in his road, to amuse himself by inspecting the duchy of Burgundy, which had lately fallen in to him. The king, therefore, ordered preparations to be made, and set out from Paris about St. John’s day 1362, having left his eldest son Charles duke of Normandy, regent and governor of the kingdom during his absence. The king took with him the lord John of Artois, his cousin, whom he much loved; the earl of Tancarville, the earl of Dampmartin, Boucicault marshal of France, sir Arnold d’Andreghen, the grand prior of France, and several others. He travelled slowly and with much expense, making some stay in all the cities and towns of Burgundy, so that he did not arrive at Villeneuve4, until about Michaelmas. It was there that his hôtel was prepared, as well for himself as for his attendants. He was most magnificently received and feasted by the pope and the college at Avignon: the king, pope, and cardinals, visited each other often. The king remained at Villeneuve during the whole time5.
About Christmas pope Innocent VI. departed this life: and the cardinals were in great discord about the election of another, for each was desirous of that honour; more particularly the cardinals of Boulogne and Perigord, who were the greatest in the college. Their dissensions kept the conclave a long time shut up. The conclave had ordered and arranged everything according to the desires of the two before-mentioned cardinals, but in such a manner that neither of them could succeed to the papacy: upon which they both agreed, that none of their brethren should wear the papal crown, and elected the abbot de St. Victor6 of Marseilles, who was a holy and learned man, of good morals, and who had laboured hard for the church in Lombardy and other places. The two cardinals sent to inform him of this elevation, and to desire he would come to Avignon: which he did as soon as possible, and received this gift with joy. He was called Urban V., and reigned with great prosperity: he augmented much the power of the church, and did great good to Rome and other parts.
Soon after this election, the king of France heard that the lord Peter de Lusignan, king of Cyprus and Jerusalem, was on his road to Avignon, having crossed the sea: upon which he resolved to wait for him, as he was anxious to see one of whom so many handsome things had been related, for having made war upon the Saracens. Lately, the new king of Cyprus, had taken the strong city of Satàlie7 from the enemies of God, and had slain, without any exceptions, all the inhabitants of both sexes whom he had found there.
There was, during this winter, a full parliament holden in England, respecting regulations for the country, but more especially to form establishments for the king’s sons. They considered that the prince of Wales kept a noble and grand state, as he might well do; for he was valiant, powerful, and rich, and had besides a large inheritance in Aquitaine, where provisions and everything else abounded. They therefore remonstrated with him, and told him from the king his father, that it would be proper for him to reside in his duchy, which would furnish him withal to keep as grand an establishment as he pleased. The barons and knights of Aquitaine were also desirous of his residing among them, and had before intreated the king to allow him so to do; for although the lord John Chandos was very agreeable and kind to them, they still loved better to have their own natural lord and sovereign than any other. The prince readily assented to this, and made every preparation becoming his own and his wife’s rank8. When all was ready, they took leave of the king, the queen and their brothers; set sail from England, and were landed, with their attendants, at La Rochelle.
But we will for a while leave this prince, and talk of some other regulations which were made at this time in England. It was enacted by the king and his council, that the lord Lionel, the king’s second son, and who had borne the title of earl of Ulster, should from thenceforward bear that of duke of Clarence; and the lord John, who was called earl of Richmond, was created duke of Lancaster, which estate came to him by his wife, the lady Blanche, as heiress to the good duke of Lancaster, her father. It was also taken into consideration by the king and his council, that the lord Edmund, the king’s youngest son, who was called earl of Cambridge, should be well provided for, and, if it were possible, that he should be united in marriage with the daughter of the earl of Flanders, at that time a widow. However, that matter, though proposed, was not fully entered upon; for it would be necessary to cautiously to work about it; besides, the lady herself was sufficiently young.
About this time, the lady Isabella of France, mother of the king, died. She was daughter of Philip the Fair. The king ordered a most magnificent and pompous funeral for her, at the Friar Minors9; at which all the prelates and barons of England, as well as the lords of France who were hostages for the performance of the articles of peace, attended.
This happened before the prince and princess of Wales left England; soon after which they set out, and arrived at La Rochelle, where they were received with great joy, and remained four whole days. As soon as the lord John Chandos (who had governed the duchy of Aquitaine a considerable time) was informed that the prince was coming, he set out from Niort10, where he resided, and came to La Rochelle with a handsome attendance of knights and squires, where they feasted most handsomely the prince, princess, and their suite. The prince was conducted from thence, with great honour and rejoicings, to the city of Poitiers. The barons and knights of Poitou and Saintonge, who at that time resided there, came and did homage and fealty to him.
The prince rode from city to city, and from town to town, receiving everywhere due homage and fealty. He at last came to Bordeaux, where he resided a considerable time, and the princess with him. The earls, viscounts, barons, knights, and lords of Gascony, came thither to pay their respects to him: all of whom he received in so gracious and pleasing a manner, that every one was contented. Even the count de Foix came to visit him, whom the prince and princess received most honourably, and treated him magnificently. A peace was at this time concluded between him and the count d’Armagnac, with whom there had been a continual warfare for a very considerable time. The lord John Chandos was soon after appointed constable of all Guienne, and sir Guiscard d’Angle marshal. The prince thus provided for the knights of his own country and his household, particularly those he loved most, with these noble and handsome offices, which were at his disposal in the duchy of Aquitaine. He nominated to all his stewartries and bailiwicks knights from England, who kept up greater state and magnificence than the inhabitants of the country could have wished: but things did not go according to their desires. We will now leave the prince and the princess of Wales, to speak of king John of France, who at this time was at Villeneuve d’Avignon.